On September 8, 1306, after the destruction of Montaccianico, Florence decided to found the “Terra Nuova”, the new land of Castel San Barnaba, later called Scarperia (literally, at the shoe, scarpa, of the Apennines).
Surrounded by walls and crossed by a new road leading north, still today the town holds a square that stands before the imposing Palazzo dei Vicari (1306) which represented both the political and spiritual power of the land. Today Palazzo dei Vicari houses the Museum of Cutting Blades, the production of which dates back to the beginning of the 14th century. On the square we find the Rectory of S. Jacopo and  Filippo and the Madonna di Piazza Oratory, an elegant 15th century construction.

On a nearby hill, we find St. Maria a Fagna Parish Church. It is an 11th century structure with late Baroque features due to the radical renovations of 1770. At the end of the thirteenth century the  Cardinal Ottaviano degli Ubaldini, whom Dante places in Hell with the Emperor Frederick II among the Epicureans and soul-deniers, was buried here. The only remnants of the Romanesque period include a white marble and green serpentine polygonal pulpit composed of six engraved mirrors and a fine octagonal baptismal font covered in ceramic. These date back, respectively, to the mid and late 12th century. Ultimately, we can admire an interesting Assumption of the Virgin (1587), by Santi di Tito, and a wax Christ Departed (1805) by Clemente Susini.